#17 以太坊入门(区块链、支链)

导读:来自 MetaMask 的一篇文档 Learn the basics of blockchains and Ethereum。阅读时间约为 10 分钟。


What is a blockchain? / 什么是区块链?

A blockchain is a type of distributed ledger technology.


A blockchain–and in particular, a public blockchain–is, at its core, a different kind of database. The word ledger is used to describe it, and a blockchain is very good at keeping track of assets coming and going, but it can store lots of different kinds of information. However, rather than having this ledger all in one computer (centralized), it’s synced across a number of different computers known as nodes: it’s decentralized or, as it’s often called, distributed.

区块链 — 特别是公共区块链 — 在其核心是一种不同的数据库。账本这个词被用来描述它,区块链在记录资产进出方面非常出色,但它可以存储很多不同种类的信息。然而,这个账本不是在一台电脑上(集中式),而是在一些不同的电脑上同步,被称为节点:它是去中心化的,或者,正如它经常被称为分布式的。

All of those nodes are constantly transmitting information to each other about transactions on the ledger: assets moving from one address, or account, on the network to another. These transactions are checked against the ledger’s history to ensure that they’re valid. Once enough nodes have verified the transaction, it gets confirmed and becomes final.


After a certain amount of time, or every certain number of transactions, the network will bundle up all those finalized transactions and seal them, using cryptographic software tools, into a block. This block is identified with a hash produced by those cryptographic tools.


The next block will use the previous block’s hash as a starting point, and so the entire history of the ledger, and therefore of the network, is linked together in a chain of blocks containing transactions: the blockchain.


How do I access Ethereum? / 我如何访问 Ethereum ?

Because a blockchain network is a separate network, different and distinct from traditional Internet connections, specific software is necessary to access the network and show the data being recorded on the blockchain. This is possible through an Ethereum client, which is standalone software, often command-line interface only, and is the tool of choice for many developers.


Additionally, the Ethereum community has developed a number of resources that allow connections between the traditional Internet and the Ethereum network. The backbone of these efforts has been MetaMask, a trailblazing browser plugin and mobile app that provides users with a custodial (user-controlled and owned) Ethereum wallet and access to dapps, or decentralized apps, that allow you to interact with the Ethereum blockchain.

此外,以太坊社区还开发了一些资源,允许在传统互联网和以太坊网络之间进行连接。这些努力的支柱是 MetaMask,这是一个开拓性的浏览器插件和移动应用程序,为用户提供一个托管(用户控制和拥有)的以太坊钱包和访问 dapp,或去中心化的应用程序,允许你与以太坊区块链互动。

  • custodial – 托管

What is a block explorer? / 什么是区块浏览器?

When you want to go deeper and see details of individual transactions, or take a birds’ eye view of the Ethereum network, a block explorer is a website that provides an interface to navigate and examine the information contained on the network. Prominent examples include Etherscan and Ethplorer.

当你想深入了解并查看个别交易的细节,或对以太坊网络进行鸟瞰时,区块浏览器是一个网站,它提供了一个界面来导航和检查网络上的信息。突出的例子包括 Etherscan 和 Ethplorer。

Ethereum mainnet, testnets, sidechains and the rest


As you venture forth into the decentralized web, or Web 3.0 as it’s often called, you will learn that Ethereum is, in fact, not just one network. The Ethereum blockchain and the EVM live and operate on the Ethereum mainnet, and there exist a number of testnets for Ethereum that are exactly what they sound like, sandboxed versions of the mainnet where ETH has no real value except to test out applications.

当你冒险进入去中心化的网络,或常说的 Web 3.0 时,你会了解到以太坊其实不只是一个网络。以太坊区块链和 EVM 在以太坊主网上生活和运行,而且存在一些以太坊的测试网,这些测试网就像它们听起来一样,是主网的沙盒版本,其中 ETH 除了用于测试应用外没有任何实际价值。

That’s just the beginning, though; there are many Ethereum-compatible sidechains that have been developed, offering users the option to carry out transactions on a separate blockchain, in that chain’s native currency, in order to avoid the sometimes-costly EVM and Ethereum mainnet transaction fees.

但这仅仅是个开始;还有许多与以太坊兼容的侧链已经被开发出来,为用户提供了在单独的区块链上用该链的原生货币进行交易的选择,以避免有时昂贵的 EVM 和以太坊主网交易费用。

Users often end up with tokens and NFTs on these sidechains that they can bring back onto Ethereum mainnet; the NFTs can be kept, displayed, sold on marketplaces; the tokens can be swapped for others, redeemed for ETH, staked, borrowed, lent, used in other dapps, transferred to other sidechains and used in videogames, or videogame-investment engine hybrids, or, well… the future is still being written.

用户通常在这些侧链上获得代币和 NFT,他们可以将其带回以太坊主网;NFT 可以保留、展示、在市场上出售;代币可以与他人交换、兑换 ETH 、抵押、借用、借出、用于其他 dapp,转移到其他侧链并用于电子游戏,或电子游戏-投资引擎混合体,或者,嗯 … 未来还在写。